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HomeAlcoholHow Thailand's Greatest Spirits Get Made, Regardless of Strict Rules

How Thailand’s Greatest Spirits Get Made, Regardless of Strict Rules


Pulling right into a gravel car parking zone in Sakon Nakhon, a peaceable province of rolling hills and rice paddies in Thailand’s rural northeast, I double-check the GPS. It tells me I’m at Onson Distillery. But when it weren’t for the hand-painted mural of a naga—the legendary serpent in Thai Buddhism featured in Onson’s brand—that wraps across the partitions, I’d swear I used to be at a tractor barn.

The distillery, a concrete warehouse with a lean-to within the again, appears to lack all frills, together with energy. The lights are off, the home windows are open, and some guys are lounging in tenting chairs, cooling themselves with followers and watching airlocks pop on high of food-grade plastic containers.


This isn’t the setting you may anticipate from the makers of one in every of Thailand’s most fascinating spirits, a clear, floral drink distilled from caramelized coconut flower sap—like a gin with out the chew. However every little thing about making spirits in Thailand defies expectations.


Thanawit “Tiger” Limlertcharoenwanich, Onson’s 32-year-old co-founder, ambles as much as me in a pa kao ma—a sarong historically worn by males within the northeast, a area generally known as Isan—and provides to point out me round. As we sip his signature spirit, I ask him in regards to the remarkably spartan setup. “We’ve got strict limits. [With our license], we’re solely allowed to make use of a complete of 5 horsepower. That’s about the identical as two hair dryers,” he explains. “That’s not sufficient for chilly rooms or air con.”

The Thai authorities points simply two kinds of distilling licenses, sometimes known as “neighborhood” and “particular,” and they’re meant to separate the Davids from the Goliaths. Or, fairly, the Goliath. ThaiBev, maker of SangSom, Mekhong and Hong Thong—ubiquitous rums and whiskeys formally labeled as “brown spirits”—produces about 90 p.c of Thailand’s liquor. 

Particular licenses permit corporations to export their merchandise and have few restrictions, however they’re tough to acquire. They require, for instance, a minimal manufacturing capability of 30,000 liters per day and environmental certification. Neighborhood licenses, just like the one Onson has, are simpler to get, however they arrive with main limitations. Onson can have solely six staff. Limlertcharoenwanich additionally has to make use of wooden fireplace to warmth the boiler; something extra electrical use would transcend the 5-horsepower restrict. Like all alcohol manufacturers in Thailand, Onson can’t promote or promote ingesting. To high it off, the neighborhood license stipulates that spirits can’t be labeled as gin, vodka or rum. All the things have to be “lao khao” (white spirit) or “lao see” (coloured, or brown, spirit). 

For a model like Onson, which solely makes a couple of thousand bottles per 12 months, the restrictions appear insurmountable. “However I don’t view it as an issue,” Limlertcharoenwanich says. “It’s a problem I’m proud to tackle.”

Unsurprisingly, the legislation has allowed powerhouse conglomerates like ThaiBev to dominate. But previously three years, craft distilling has boomed. Limlertcharoenwanich estimates there are actually greater than 100 small Thai manufacturers making spirits.

“For lots of us, it’s an emblem of the struggle towards monopolization,” he says.

It’s additionally a motion to vary minds and shatter stigmas.

Onson Distillery Thailand

“Traditionally, Thai drinkers noticed lao see as elite,” associating it with costly imported whiskey and rum. Unaged or “white” spirits like lao khao have been “the poor man’s alcohol,” Limlertcharoenwanich explains. 

Even when he began promoting Onson in 2020, bartenders in Bangkok wouldn’t take it as a result of it’s lao khao, a spirit related to hangovers, impurities and poverty, he says. He wasn’t simply battling authorized restrictions; he needed to overcome hard-set stereotypes towards Isan folks and merchandise. However in 2022, opinions began to vary.

Because the progressive Transfer Ahead Occasion put ahead a invoice to liberalize the manufacturing of beer and spirits, its members went to bat for small producers. In a tv interview, influential celebration chief Pita Limjaroenrat name-dropped a number of of his favourite Thai spirits, together with Onson. Ever since, the recognition of those manufacturers has surged. Limlertcharoenwanich says his bottles promote out as quickly as he releases them, and each week, guests drop by the distillery in Sakon Nakhon, a province far off the nation’s vacationer path, even for home vacationers.

“Even my dad and mom didn’t like what I used to be doing at first. However now it’s a degree of pleasure for Sakon Nakhon. The mayor and police chief purchase my bottles and provides them as items,” he explains.

Onson Distillery Thailand

Different distilleries have skilled the identical bump, maybe as a result of their use of native merchandise has given them a stronger Thai identification that native shoppers take pleasure in. Issan Rum and Chalong Bay, for instance, use Thailand’s considerable native sugar cane—the nation is the world’s second-biggest sugar exporter, after Brazil—to make rhum agricole. The rum is produced from fresh-pressed juice fairly than molasses, because it’s made in Martinique and different islands within the Caribbean previously managed by France. Krabi’s Kilo even makes its GN—so named to work round promoting legal guidelines barring use of the phrase “gin”—from a domestically sourced sugar cane base.

On high of carrying Kilo and Chalong Bay in his firm’s portfolio, Minway Chi, founding father of Bangkok-based import and distribution firm Bootleggers Buying and selling Co., additionally produces his personal gin. Comprised of a sugar cane base utilizing an Armagnac nonetheless, which amplifies the floral notes and tamps down the funky, grassy taste, in accordance with Chi, his savory Grandma Jinn—one other intelligent use of wordplay—is laced with Thai and Chinese language aromatics like tangerine peel, angelica root and safflower.

Onson Distillery Thailand

Because of merchandise like these, drinkers are more and more viewing Thai spirits as fascinating boutique expressions beloved for his or her high quality and sense of place. Whereas many new producers are nonetheless discovering their footing, manufacturers like Issan Rum are already on the menu at hip Bangkok bars, together with Asia Right now. Chalong Bay exports to a couple of dozen nations, together with France, Singapore and the U.Ok.

“Typically, restrictions drive you to be extra inventive. In Thailand, you actually should experiment throughout the confines of the foundations, and it’s leading to some distinctive merchandise.” Onson resides proof.

Limlertcharoenwanich says he initially used sugar cane juice, however when locals didn’t like his lao khao, he experimented with coconut sugar. He ultimately went one step additional, sourcing additive-free, caramelized coconut flower sap from a farm close to a floating market exterior Bangkok. This time, they beloved it. Now, he’s aiming to offer again to a few of these similar shoppers.

In 2022, the Thai authorities began recognizing medium-sized distilleries, elevating energy limits to 50 horsepower and permitting as much as 50 staff. Limlertcharoenwanich has utilized for the license. With the additional capability, he intends to buy extra fruit and different merchandise farmers can’t promote and switch it into lao khao, to offer the farmers a brand new income stream.

“My dream is to make lao khao one thing everybody is aware of and [associates with] Thailand, like sake with Japan. Fruit, rice, palm sugar, coconut flower. If we share data with each other, we are able to flip so many merchandise into nice spirits,” he says. “I need Sakon Nakhon to be the capital of lao khao.”

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